甲方與承包者協議書： 基本條件（及特殊條件）： 圖紙及說明書。
Role of Specification in Construction
Architects or engineers prepare contract documents for a project for the purpose of obtaining competitive bids for construction and guiding the successful contractor during construction.To the extent,these documents,such as The Agreement between the Owner and the Contractor and certain aspects of the general conditions,involve legal matters,the role of the architects and engineers is to assist the owner’s attorney.The contract documents consist of:The Agreement between the Owner and the Contrator;General Conditions(and Special Conditions);Drawings and Specififcations.
The specifications are a written description and the drawings a diagrammatic presentation of the construction project.The drawings and specifications are complementary.
Although explanatory notes are included on drawings,these notes are short,general,and describe a type of construction,its location and quantity required,whereas specifications expand on the
characteristics of the materials involved and the workmanship desired in installing them.A note on the drawings may read “Suspended acoustic ceiling.”The specifications will completely describe the ceiling and establish such details as whether the acoustic material is pefinished perforated metal with sound-absorbing pads,mineral fiber,orvegetable fiber;the size of the units;whether the metal grid supporting theacoustic units is concealed or exposed and numerous other conditions.
Specifications are addressed to the prime contractor.They present a written description of the project in an ordenly and logical manner.They are organized into divisions and sections repressnting,in the opinion of the specification writer,the trades that will be involved in construction.Proper organization of the specifications will facilitate estimating and aid in preparation of bids.
Workmanship required should be detailed in the specifications.Contractors study specifications to determine the sequence of work,quality of workmanship,and appearance of end product.From this information,they determine costs of the various skills and labor required.If workmanship is not determined properly,unrealistic costs will result.
For example,specification will describe that ducts may be made of galvanized-iron.When galvanized-iron is used,it may be lined with sound-absorbing material,to reduce noise from movement of air.Air-conditioning metal ducts passing through non-conditioned spaces should be wrapped with thermal insulation enclosed in a vapor barrier.This will prevent heat transfer between air within and outside the ducts and condensation on ducts carrying cold air.With regard to materials used for ducts,the interiors should be smooth to keep resistance to air flow small.The end product may or may not satisfy the building designer.A clearly written and comprehensivespecification is the only means of indicating to contractors what must be done to produce an acceptable building.
Whenever a dispute arises,the contraction parties will scrutinize the specifications for instructions or requirements spelled out in writing before consulting any other part of the construction documents.So specifications must be specific and accurate in discribing the requirements of the projcet.
A good specification will expand or clarify drawing notes,define quality of materials and workmanship,establish the scope of work,and spell out the responsibilities of the prime contractor.