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土建工程翻譯中說明書在建筑中的作用

   日期:2020-03-12     瀏覽:41    評論:0    
核心提示:土建建筑翻譯中說明書在建筑中的作用為了招標建設任務和指導承包者進行施工,建筑師或工程技術人員需要編制合同文件。當甲方與承
 土建中說明書在建筑中的作用為了招標建設任務和指導承包者進行施工,建筑師或工程技術人員需要編制合同文件。當“甲方與承包者協議書”以及基本條件的某些方面涉及法律程序時,建筑師和工程技術人員為甲方律師提供幫助。合同文件包括: 

    甲方與承包者協議書: 基本條件(及特殊條件): 圖紙及說明書。 

    說明書是建設項目的文字說明,而圖紙則是該項目的圖示說明,圖紙和說明書互為補充。 

    盡管圖紙上也有解釋性的說明,但這種說明簡短而籠統,僅對建筑物的型式、位置以及規格尺寸要求加以說明,而說明書則擴展到所用材料的特性及安裝技術要求。圖紙上可能全都寫上這樣一條說明:“隔間頂棚”。說明書則對該項頂棚進行完整說明及交代細節。例如隔音材料是采用預先精加工的帶吸音墊的空金屬板還是采用礦物纖維,還是植物纖維;構件的大小;支承隔音材料的金屬格棚是采用隱蔽式還是裸露式以及其他許多別的問題。 

    說明書是針對直接承包者的。說明書對工程項目提供順序井然、層次清晰的文字說明材料。說明書根據編制者的觀點,按施工中所涉及的各個工種,分為若干章節。條理清楚的說明書將有助于成本估算并投標的準備工作。 

    說明書中要詳細注明技術要求。承包者將研究說明書,從而確定工作程序、施工質量、以及完工工程的外觀等。根據這些資料,他們可以確定各種技術和勞力的費用。如果技術要求確定不準確,造價就會定得不切合實際。 

    例如,說明書可能注明風道可用白鐵皮制作;但當使用白鐵皮時,也許要內襯吸音材料,以降低由于空氣流動而引起的噪聲。經過非空調空間的空調金屬風道應當用保溫材料裹起來,保溫材料外面加防潮層。這會防止管道內外空氣間的熱導并避免傳送空氣的管道上發生冷凝現象。至于風道所用的材料,里面應當光滑,這樣對氣流的阻力就小。完工的工程項目有的可能不能滿足設計者的要求。編制清楚而全面的說明書是向承包者說明如何建成滿意的建筑物的唯一手段。 

    一旦發生爭執,簽約各方便首先推敲說明書,查對所作的說明及要求,然后才去研究其它的建筑文件。因此,說明書對于具體項目的說明和要求一定要準確具體。 

    一份好的說明書將使圖紙說明得到擴展和澄清,規定材料和技術質量,規定施工范圍并指出直接承包者的職責。

    Role of Specification in Construction 

    Architects or engineers prepare contract documents for a project for the purpose of obtaining competitive bids for construction and guiding the successful contractor during construction.To the extent,these documents,such as The Agreement between the Owner and the Contractor and certain aspects of the general conditions,involve legal    matters,the role of the architects and engineers is to assist the owner’s attorney.The contract documents consist of:The Agreement between the Owner and the Contrator;General Conditions(and Special Conditions);Drawings and Specififcations. 

    The specifications are a written description and the drawings a diagrammatic presentation of the construction project.The drawings and specifications are complementary. 

    Although explanatory notes are included on drawings,these notes are short,general,and describe a type of construction,its location and quantity required,whereas specifications expand on the 

characteristics of the materials involved and the workmanship desired in installing them.A note on the drawings may read “Suspended acoustic ceiling.”The specifications will completely describe the ceiling and establish such details as whether the acoustic material is pefinished perforated metal with sound-absorbing pads,mineral fiber,orvegetable fiber;the size of the units;whether the metal grid supporting theacoustic units is concealed or exposed and numerous other conditions. 

    Specifications are addressed to the prime contractor.They present a written description of the project in an ordenly and logical manner.They are organized into divisions and sections repressnting,in the opinion of the specification writer,the trades that will be involved in construction.Proper organization of the specifications will facilitate estimating and aid in preparation of bids. 

    Workmanship required should be detailed in the specifications.Contractors study specifications to determine the sequence of work,quality of workmanship,and appearance of end product.From this information,they determine costs of the various skills and labor required.If workmanship is not determined properly,unrealistic costs will result. 

    For example,specification will describe that ducts may be made of galvanized-iron.When galvanized-iron is used,it may be lined with sound-absorbing material,to reduce noise from movement of air.Air-conditioning metal ducts passing through non-conditioned spaces should be wrapped with thermal insulation enclosed in a vapor barrier.This will prevent heat transfer between air within and outside the ducts and condensation on ducts carrying cold air.With regard to materials used for ducts,the interiors should be smooth to keep resistance to air flow small.The end product may or may not satisfy the building designer.A clearly written and comprehensivespecification is the only means of indicating to contractors what must be done to produce an acceptable building. 

    Whenever a dispute arises,the contraction parties will scrutinize the specifications for instructions or requirements spelled out in writing before consulting any other part of the construction documents.So specifications must be specific and accurate in discribing the requirements of the projcet. 

    A good specification will expand or clarify drawing notes,define quality of materials and workmanship,establish the scope of work,and spell out the responsibilities of the prime contractor.

 
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